There isn’t one size fits all model in this case. This is because European policies, justice system and governing style differs in most of European countries. There are several approaches across Europe. Some countries use the criminal justice system to severely punish returnees. These countries are on the one hand motivated by their desire to show they are doing something against extremists and foreign fighters who are returning. Harsh punishment is also used as a tool to deter would-be fighters while others see the action of foreign fighters as purely criminal in nature. The rehabilitation model is intended to reform and reintegrate returning fighters but the model is unpopular and it’s difficult to achieve full rehabilitation. Probably we need a clever mix of both models to deal with the problem.
From the Glossary:
- Programme = a series of activities done in conjunction to one another for example a workshop or lecture, with the aim and objective of educating.
- Foreign fighters = individuals who joined an armed conflict abroad.