digital umm = online female Jihadist community; Umm –Arabic word for mother
disengagement = process whereby an individual ceases to be involved in terrorism
extremism = the holding of extreme political or religious views; fanaticism.
fard ayn = individual obligation
fard kifaya = collective obligation
fitna = temptation or trial; discord with Muslim community
foreign fighter = Individuals who joined an armed conflict abroad
hadith = stories recording the words and deeds of the Prophet by people who knew him.
hijra (also spelled Hijrah or Hejira) = Migration to the ISIS / Da’esh Caliphate
insurgent = an individual who fights against a government or a ruling force with the aim of overthrowing it
jahiliyyah = ignorant past
jihad = striving; ‘effort’ or ‘struggle’. Muslims distinguish between two forms of jihad: the inner jihad, referring to the struggle against temptation and to improve one’s own character and to a militant struggle waged to defend the (land of) Islam.
kufr = Infidel
kunjah = nickname
lone wolf = a terrorist who works on his own, without operational assistance or communication with other extremists
mujahed, pl. mujahedin = jihad fighter
Neo-fascism = a political movement that seeks to establish a racially or ethnically homogeneous society under a leader entrusted with authoritarian power
programme = a series of activities done in conjunction to one another for example a workshop or lecture, with the aim and objective of educating
PVE / CVE = Preventing Violent Extremism (PVE) / Countering Violent Extremism (CVE). Using non-coercive means that seek to address the drivers and/or root causes of violent extremism.
radicalisation = terrorist radicalisation is understood as the complex phenomenon of people embracing opinions, views and ideas that could lead to committing terrorist acts.
radicalising materials = include literature or videos that are used by radicals to encourage or reinforce others to adapt a radical ideology. See also Rumiyah
racism = prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior
RAN = Radicalisation Awareness Network. European hub and platform to exchange experiences, pool knowledge, identify best practice and establish new initiative in tackling radicalisation
Rumiyah = Online glossy propaganda magazines launched by IS for non-Arabic speakers; first released in September 2016.
Salafism = fundamentalist, Sunni Islamic movement that aims for a return to a pure Islamic society.
sahabiyyat = female companions of the Prophet
shahada = profession of faith; also martyrdom
shahid = witness; also martyr
Sharia = strict Quranic law
shirk = the sin of practising polytheism, or ascribing diving characteristics to anyone but god
Shura = Council
takfir = excommunicated; a lapsed Muslim
terrorist financing = the provision or collection of funds, by any means, directly or indirectly, with the intention or knowledge that they are to be used, in full or in part, in a terrorism plot
tawhid = unity of god
Umma = Muslim community
VE = Violent Extremism. Mostly, violent extremism is regarded as including, but not limited to, acts of terrorism
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